When a site-to-site VPN is used, which protocol is responsible for the transport of user data?
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A site-to-site VPN allows offices in multiple fixed locations to establish secure connections with each other over a public network such as the Internet.
A site-to-site VPN means that two sites create a VPN tunnel by encrypting and sending data between two devices.
One set of rules for creating a site-to-site VPN is defined by IPsec.
Answer: A. IPsec
When two or more networks are connected together through the internet or any other public network, they use a VPN or Virtual Private Network to establish a secure connection. The VPN creates an encrypted tunnel over the public network through which the data can be securely transmitted between the two or more sites.
In the case of site-to-site VPN, IPsec (Internet Protocol Security) is responsible for the transport of user data. IPsec is a set of protocols used to secure the communication over IP networks by providing confidentiality, integrity, and authentication of network packets.
IPsec uses two protocols to secure the communication:
Authentication Header (AH) Protocol: It provides data authentication and integrity, but it does not provide encryption. It is used when data confidentiality is not a concern.
Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) Protocol: It provides data confidentiality, data authentication, and data integrity. It encrypts the data, so it cannot be read by anyone who does not have the key to decrypt it.
IPsec uses two modes to provide security:
Transport mode: In this mode, only the data payload is encrypted, and the IP header remains unencrypted. It is used for host-to-host communication.
Tunnel mode: In this mode, the entire IP packet is encrypted, including the IP header. It is used for site-to-site communication.
To establish a secure communication between two sites, the IPsec protocols are configured on the VPN gateways of both the sites. Once the IPsec protocols are configured, the gateways exchange the necessary keys and parameters to establish the encrypted tunnel.
In summary, IPsec is responsible for the transport of user data in a site-to-site VPN, and it provides confidentiality, integrity, and authentication of the network packets by encrypting the data and establishing an encrypted tunnel between the two or more sites.