Which technology provides fast forwarding path failure detection times for all media types, encapsulations, topologies, and routing protocols?
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The technology that provides fast forwarding path failure detection times for all media types, encapsulations, topologies, and routing protocols is BFD (Bidirectional Forwarding Detection).
BFD is a protocol that detects forwarding path failures between two adjacent routers, regardless of the media type, encapsulation, topology, or routing protocol being used. It works by exchanging periodic hello messages between the routers to detect any changes in the forwarding path.
BFD has a very low detection time, typically less than one second, which makes it very useful for detecting and quickly recovering from forwarding path failures. This is especially important in networks where fast convergence times are critical, such as in service provider networks.
NSF (Non-Stop Forwarding) is a feature that allows a router to continue forwarding packets during a supervisor switchover or a routing protocol reconvergence. It does not provide fast forwarding path failure detection times like BFD.
IP Dampening is a feature that suppresses the routing updates for a certain period of time in case of flapping routes. It is not used for fast forwarding path failure detection.
UDLD (Unidirectional Link Detection) is a protocol that detects unidirectional links between two adjacent switches. It is not used for detecting forwarding path failures between routers.
MPLS TE (Multiprotocol Label Switching Traffic Engineering) is a technology used for optimizing the use of network resources in MPLS networks. It is not used for detecting forwarding path failures between routers.