Question 516 of 952
Refer to the graphic. Host A is communicating with the server. What will be the source MAC address of the frames received by Host A from the server?
Whereas switches can only examine and forward packets based on the contents of the MAC header, routers can look further into the packet to discover the network for which a packet is destined. Routers make forwarding decisions based on the packet's network-layer header (such as an IPX header or IP header).
These network-layer headers contain source and destination network addresses. Local devices address packets to the router's MAC address in the MAC header.
After receiving the packets, the router must perform the following steps:
1. Check the incoming packet for corruption, and remove the MAC header. The router checks the packet for MAC-layer errors. The router then strips off the MAC header and examines the network- layer header to determine what to do with the packet.
2. Examine the age of the packet. The router must ensure that the packet has not come too far to be forwarded. For example, IPX headers contain a hop count.
By default, 15 hops is the maximum number of hops (or routers) that a packet can cross. If a packet has a hop count of 15, the router discards the packet. IP headers contain a Time to Live (TTL) value. Unlike the IPX hop count, which increments as the packet is forwarded through each router, the IP TTL value decrements as the IP packet is forwarded through each router. If an IP packet has a TTL value of 1, the router discards the packet. A router cannot decrement the
TTL value to 1 and then forward the packet.
3. Determine the route to the destination. Routers maintain a routing table that lists available networks, the direction to the desired network (the outgoing interface number), and the distance to those networks. After determining which direction to forward the packet, the router must build a new header. (If you want to read the
IP routing tables on a Windows 95/98 workstation, type ROUTE PRINT in the DOS box.)
4. Build the new MAC header and forward the packet. Finally, the router builds a new MAC header for the packet. The MAC header includes the router's MAC address and the final destination's MAC address or the MAC address of the next router in the path.