How does NAT overloading provide one-to-many address translation?
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NAT (Network Address Translation) overloading, also known as Port Address Translation (PAT), is a technique used to translate private IPv4 addresses to public IPv4 addresses to allow communication over the internet.
One-to-many address translation is achieved by assigning a unique TCP/UDP port number to each session. In this way, multiple devices with private IPv4 addresses can use the same public IPv4 address to communicate with the internet, with each session being distinguished by its unique port number.
For example, a home network may have several devices with private IPv4 addresses (e.g., 192.168.1.1, 192.168.1.2, etc.) that share a single public IPv4 address assigned by the Internet Service Provider (ISP). When a device initiates a communication session with a server on the internet, NAT overloading assigns a unique TCP/UDP port number to that session, so that the server can send the response back to the correct device on the private network.
NAT overloading uses a pool of public IPv4 addresses to assign them to the private IPv4 addresses dynamically. This pool of public IPv4 addresses is shared among all devices in the private network, and each session uses a unique TCP/UDP port number to identify itself. As a result, NAT overloading conserves public IPv4 addresses, which are a scarce resource, and allows multiple devices with private IPv4 addresses to access the internet using a single public IPv4 address.
In summary, NAT overloading provides one-to-many address translation by assigning a unique TCP/UDP port number to each session and using a pool of public IPv4 addresses to assign them dynamically to private IPv4 addresses.